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A siren call even sweeter than her husband's voice roused Marie Antoinette from her malaise at court. This move angered the Third Estate; so they declared themselves as the national assembly; the mouthpiece of the nation. When Louis XVI understood their only chance of survival was to escape, it was too late: the royal flight to Varennes took place during the night of the 21 st June 1791, and was unsuccessful largely due to the king’s indecision. The following are two major reasons that contributed to King Louis XVI’s downfall: When a 19-year-old Louis climbed the French throne, his ideas were about religious freedom, establishing foreign connections and trying to please people. She became dauphine of France in May 1770 at age 14 upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne. [80] De Mercy wrote to the Empress: "It is almost unexampled that in so short a time, the royal favor should have brought such overwhelming advantages to a family". Louis married Mary Antoinette, an Austrian princess. Many French people were beginning to blame her for the degrading economic situation, suggesting the country's inability to pay off its debt was the result of her wasting the crown's money. [70] Her third pregnancy was affirmed in March 1781, and on 22 October she gave birth to Louis Joseph Xavier François, Dauphin of France. Marie-Antoinette warned her Swedish admirer to be more careful after Louis XVI, her husband, almost stumbled across one of his secret messages to the French queen, researchers have revealed.The [99] The fact that the birth occurred exactly nine months after Fersen's return did not escape the attention of many, leading to doubt as to the parentage of the child and to a noticeable decline of the queen's reputation in public opinion. While some advocated her death, others proposed exchanging her for French prisoners of war or for a ransom from the Holy Roman Emperor. Most serious historians (let’s mention Bertière and Petitfils) now agree that Marie Antoinette had at the very least an emotional affair. [86] Her mother again expressed concern for the safety of her daughter, and she began to use Austria's ambassador to France, comte de Mercy, to provide information on Marie Antoinette's safety and movements. Marie Antoinette was persuaded by her husband’s aunts to refuse to acknowledge du Barry, which some saw as a political blunder that jeopardized Austria’s interests at the French court. [217], For many revolutionary figures, Marie Antoinette was the symbol of what was wrong with the old regime in France. As a daughter of France's enemy, Marie Antoinette was an unpopular pick for queen. [6] Maria Antonia had a difficult but ultimately loving relationship with her mother,[7] who referred to her as "the little Madame Antoine". [225] Her life has been the subject of many films, such as the 2006 film Marie Antoinette. What about Siad Bare of Somalia ??? Despite his dislike of the queen—he detested her as much as she detested him and at one time had even threatened to send her to a convent—he was persuaded by the mayor of Paris, Jean Sylvain Bailly, to work and collaborate with her, and allowed her to see Fersen a number of times. [97][98], On 27 March 1785, Marie Antoinette gave birth to a second son, Louis Charles, who bore the title of duc de Normandie. [197] She was attended by Rosalie Lamorlière, who took care of her as much as she could. Marie Antoinette, the 15th child of Holy Roman Emperor Francis I and the powerful Habsburg empress Maria Theresa, was born in Vienna, Austria, in 1755–an age of … [31][32] The queen did play a decisive role in the disgrace and exile of the most powerful of Louis XV's ministers, the duc d'Aiguillon. The château's high price, almost 6 million livres, plus the substantial extra cost of redecorating, ensured that much less money was going towards repaying France's substantial debt. [205] In the hours left to her, she composed a letter to her sister-in-law, Madame Élisabeth, affirming her clear conscience, her Catholic faith, and her love and concern for her children. It further deteriorated when Louis XVI tried to use a lit de justice on 11 November to impose legislation. Like Lafayette, Mirabeau was a liberal aristocrat. As these attacks increased, they were connected with the public's dislike of her association with the rival nation of Austria. Marie Antoinette then became Queen of the French. The Assembly then passed a series of laws concerning the Church, the aristocracy, and the formation of new national guard units; all were vetoed by Louis XVI. [190][191], The queen, now called "Widow Capet", plunged into deep mourning. But he didn’t complete his expected life tenure due to interruptions by French Revolution. (En une seule nuit ils étaient devenus blancs comme ceux d'une femme de soixante-dix ans. ", especially when he took the oath to protect the nation and to enforce the laws voted by the Constitutional Assembly. On the other hand, those opposed to the alliance with Austria had a difficult relationship with Marie Antoinette, as did others who disliked her for more personal or petty reasons. [176] In addition, at the insistence of his wife, Louis XVI vetoed several measures that would have further restricted his power, earning the royal couple the nicknames "Monsieur Veto" and "Madame Veto",[177][178] nicknames then prominently featured in different contexts, including La Carmagnole. A further ceremonial wedding took place on 16 May 1770 in the Palace of Versailles and, after the festivities, the day ended with the ritual bedding. Barnave and the moderates comprised about 260 lawmakers in the new Legislative Assembly; the radicals numbered around 136, and the rest around 350. [117], The queen attempted to fight back with propaganda portraying her as a caring mother, most notably in the painting by Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun exhibited at the Royal Académie Salon de Paris in August 1787, showing her with her children. Marie Antoinette was born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna in Vienna, Austria, in 1755. [193] In April 1793, during the Reign of Terror, a Committee of Public Safety dominated by Robespierre was formed, and men such as Jacques Hébert began to call for Marie-Antoinette's trial. Ninety minutes later, the palace was invaded by the mob, who massacred the Swiss Guards. Marie-Antoinette, born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna von Habsburg-Lothringen (2 November 1755 – 16 October 1793), an Archduchess of Austria, was the fifteenth and second youngest child of Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor and Empress Maria Theresa. [222], The phrase "Let them eat cake" is often attributed to Marie Antoinette, but there is no evidence that she ever uttered it, and it is now generally regarded as a journalistic cliché. In September 1792, the French monarchy was thrown into the gutters by the National Convention — the French Republic had been birthed. For a country that was getting eaten up by debts, the people realized that Louis was too naive to rule. She was under constant surveillance, with no privacy. [62] The new fashion called for a simpler feminine look, typified first by the rustic robe à la polonaise style and later by the gaulle, a layered muslin dress Marie Antoinette wore in a 1783 Vigée-Le Brun portrait. [228] Armand and Zoe had a position which was more similar to that of Ernestine; Armand lived at court with the king and queen until he left them at the outbreak of the revolution because of his republican sympathies, and Zoe was chosen to be the playmate of the Dauphin, just as Ernestine had once been selected as the playmate of Marie-Therese, and sent away to her sisters in a convent boarding school before the Flight to Varennes in 1791. It inspired Mozart's Le Nozze di Figaro, which premiered in Vienna on 1 May 1786. [citation needed], After Louis' execution, Marie Antoinette's fate became a central question of the National Convention. There were even cheers for the queen, particularly when she presented the Dauphin to the public.[154][155]. [189], Charged with treason against the French First Republic, Louis XVI was separated from his family and tried in December. In March 1791 Pope Pius VI had condemned the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, reluctantly signed by Louis XVI, which reduced the number of bishops from 132 to 93, imposed the election of bishops and all members of the clergy by departmental or district assemblies of electors, and reduced the Pope's authority over the Church. Rose Bertin created dresses for her, and hairstyles such as poufs, up to three feet (90 cm) high, and the panache (a spray of feather plumes). Eventually, Marie Antoinette's reputation was no better than that of the favorites of previous kings. [2] Her godparents were Joseph I and Mariana Victoria, King and Queen of Portugal; Archduke Joseph and Archduchess Maria Anna acted as proxies for their newborn sister. On the other hand, both the king and the queen trusted Mme de Polignac completely, gave her a thirteen-room apartment in Versailles and paid her well. In her new role and with increasing political power, the queen tried to improve the awkward situation brewing between the assembly and the king. [39] In her correspondence, Marie Antoinette's mother, Maria Theresa, expressed concern over her daughter's spending habits, citing the civil unrest it was beginning to cause.[40]. Required fields are marked *. [56] Courtiers at Versailles noted in their diaries that the date of the child's conception in fact corresponded perfectly with a period when the king and the queen had spent much time together, but these details were ignored amid attacks on the queen's character. Throughout her imprisonment and up to her execution, Marie Antoinette could count on the sympathy of conservative factions and social-religious groups which had turned against the Revolution, and also on wealthy individuals ready to bribe republican officials to facilitate her escape;[192] These plots all failed. While imprisoned in the Tower of the Temple, Marie Antoinette, her children, and Élisabeth were insulted, some of the guards going as far as blowing smoke in the ex-queen's face. ­ The play was a disaster for the image of the monarchy and aristocracy. Marie Antoinette was persuaded by her husband's aunts to refuse to acknowledge du Barry, which some saw as a political blunder that jeopardized Austria's interests at the French court. After Madame Roland sent a letter to the king denouncing the queen's role in these matters, urged by the queen, Louis XVI disbanded[citation needed] the government, thus losing his majority in the Assembly. [59][60], Meanwhile, the queen began to institute changes in court customs. During the Revolution, she became known as Madame Déficit because the country's financial crisis was blamed on her lavish spending and her opposition to the social and financial reforms of Turgot and Necker. During the famine of 1787, she sold the royal flatware in order to provide grain to families who were struggling. She became increasingly unpopular among the people, however, with the French libelles accusing her of being profligate, promiscuous, harboring sympathies for France's perceived enemies—particularly her native Austria—and her children of being illegitimate. [212][213] Her last words are recorded as, "Pardonnez-moi, monsieur. They described amorous encounters with a wide range of figures, from the Duchess de Polignac to Louis XV. ), who was adopted in 1790 along with her two older sisters when her parents, an usher and his wife in service of the king, had died. In the wake of the French financial struggles, queen Antoinette lived lavishly to the vexation of the masses. [228], Last Queen of France prior to the French Revolution, Articles and topics related to Marie Antoinette, Generations are numbered by male-line descent from, Significant civil and political events by year, Motherhood, changes at court, intervention in politics (1778–81), Prelude to the Revolution: scandals and the failure of reforms (1786–89), Failure of political and financial reforms, French Revolution before Varennes (1789–91), Flight, arrest at Varennes and return to Paris (21–25 June 1791), Radicalization of the Revolution after Varennes (1791–92), Events leading to the abolition of the monarchy on 10 August 1792, harvnb error: multiple targets (4×): CITEREFFraser2002 (, harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFLever2006 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPierre_NolhacLa_Dauphine_Marie_Antoinette,1929 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFNolhac1929 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFAlfred_et_Geffroy_D'ArnethCorrespondance_Secrete_entre_Marie-Therese_et_le_Comte_de_Mercy-Argenteau,_vol_31874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCronin1974 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFALfred_and_Geffroy_d'Arneth1874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFJackes_LevronMadame_du_Barry1973 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFEvelyne_LeverMarie_Antoinette1991 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFArneth_and_Geffroy_ii1874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLeverMarie_Antoinette_1991 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFArneth_and_Geffroy_i1874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHoward_Patricia,_Gluck1995 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFArneth_and_Geoffroy,_iii1874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPrice_MunroPreserving_the_Monarchy:_The_Comte_de_Vergennes,_1774–17871995 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPrice1995 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLettres_de_Marie_AntoinetteLe_Marquis_de_Beaucourt1895Vol_ii (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLever,_Marie_Antoinette1991 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMunro_PriceThe_Road_to_Versailles2003 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFZweig_StephanMarie_Antoinette1938 (, Farr, Evelyn, Marie Antoinette and Count Fersen: Untold Love Story, Hunt, Lynn. She learned to play the harp, the harpsichord and the flute. Over the objections of Lafayette and his allies, the king was given a suspensive veto allowing him to veto any laws for a period of four years. Marie Antoinette's position at court improved when, after eight years of marriage, she started having children. Barnave remained the most important advisor and supporter of the queen, who was willing to work with him as long as he met her demands, which he did to a large extent. Initially, the majority was with Barnave, but the queen's policies led to the radicalization of the Assembly and the moderates lost control of the legislative process. [73][74], Despite the general celebration over the birth of the Dauphin, Marie Antoinette's political influence, such as it was, did greatly benefit Austria. Four guards accompanied the queen wherever she went, and her bedroom door had to be left open at night. Louis XVI allowed Marie Antoinette to renovate it to suit her own tastes; soon rumors circulated that she had plastered the walls with gold and diamonds. Their reaction comforted her since these women were not otherwise sympathetic to her. This last accusation drew an emotional response from Marie Antoinette, who refused to respond to this charge, instead appealing to all mothers present in the room. There is no evidence to support the accusations. The June 1791 attempted flight to Varennes and her role in the War of the First Coalition had disastrous effects on French popular opinion. Marie Antoinette’s Husband – King Louis XVI. Finally, on 8 August, Louis XVI announced his intention to bring back the Estates General, the traditional elected legislature of the country, which had not been convened since 1614.[122]. Marie Antoinette was born an Austrian princess. It was en vogue at the time for nobles to have recreations of small villages on their properties. Marie Thérèse was of a shyer, more nervous disposition, but this did not stop Marie Antoinette from regarding her as close as a relative and treating her as inseparable, so much so that she'd exclaim to her husband "Ah, sire, the Princess de Lamballe's friendship is the charm of my life." Je ne l’ai pas fait exprès" or "Pardon me, sir, I did not do it on purpose", after accidentally stepping on her executioner's shoe. Others involved were Nicole Lequay, alias Baronne d'Oliva, a prostitute who happened to look like Marie Antoinette; Rétaux de Villette, a forger; Alessandro Cagliostro, an Italian adventurer; and the Comte de La Motte, Jeanne de Valois' husband. [7][53][54] The child's paternity was contested in the libelles, as were all her children's. In 1774, King Louis XV died, and Antoinette and her husband became King and Queen. [22][23] She merely commented to her, "There are a lot of people at Versailles today", but it was enough for Madame du Barry, who was satisfied with this recognition, and the crisis passed. Instead, Antoinette turned to grand balls, the theater, and card games. Marie Antoinette’s busy social life in the early years of her husband’s reign attracted much attention and criticism. She accepted Necker's proposition to double the representation of the Third Estate (tiers état) in an attempt to check the power of the aristocracy. When Louis XV died about four years later, Louis-Auguste assumed the throne as Louis XVI. She was the youngest daughter of Emperor Francis I and Empress Maria Theresa. Marie Antoinette always refused to escape alone without her husband. [58] Marie Antoinette pleaded with her husband for the French to intercede on behalf of Austria. [8][4][5][9] Despite the private tutoring she received, the results of her schooling were less than satisfactory. The Brunswick Manifesto, issued on 25 July 1792, triggered the events of 10 August[183] when the approach of an armed mob on its way to the Tuileries Palace forced the royal family to seek refuge at the Legislative Assembly. Who knows what suggestive advice he might have whispered in their ears during a walk around the grounds of Versailles? [204] At worst, she and her lawyers had expected life imprisonment. [157][158][159] Fersen and Breteuil, who represented her in the courts of Europe, were put in charge of the escape plan, while Marie Antoinette continued her negotiations with some of the moderate leaders of the French Revolution.[160][161]. 1. Instead of scheduling a general parliamentary meeting for the three bodies, Louis failed to do that — he preferred separate meetings. [144], Marie Antoinette continued to perform charitable functions and attend religious ceremonies, but dedicated most of her time to her children. [78] This decision met with disapproval from the court as the duchess was considered to be of too modest a birth to occupy such an exalted position. Maria Antonia spent her formative years between the Hofburg Palace and Schönbrunn, the imperial summer residence in Vienna,[4] where on 13 October 1762, when she was seven, she met Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, two months her junior and a child prodigy. A common misconception is that the Queen had absolutely no leeway to have a lover had she wanted to. [113][114] The Assembly was a failure. Until her removal from the Temple, Marie Antoinette spent hours trying to catch a glimpse of her son, who, within weeks, had been made to turn against her, accusing his mother of wrongdoing. Marie Antoinette (/ˌæntwəˈnɛt, ˌɒ̃t-/,[1] French: [maʁi ɑ̃twanɛt] (listen); born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna; 2 November 1755 – 16 October 1793) was the last queen of France before the French Revolution. At the outset, the new queen had limited political influence with her husband, who, with the support of his two most important ministers, Chief Minister Maurepas and Foreign Minister Vergennes, blocked several of her candidates from assuming important positions, including Choiseul. Marie Antoinette had profoundly disliked Rohan since the time he had been the French ambassador to Vienna when she was a child. If the secret expenses of the queen were taken into account, court expenses were much higher than the official estimate of 7% of the state budget. Marie Antoinette was born the fifteenth of sixteen children in 1755 to the Holy Roman Empress Maria Theresa of Austria and her husband, Francis Stephen of Lorraine (Carroll, 255). She was 37 years old. [126], The death of the Dauphin on 4 June, which deeply affected his parents, was virtually ignored by the French people,[127] who were instead preparing for the next meeting of the Estates-General and hoping for a resolution to the bread crisis. Marie Antoinette's trial began on 14 October 1793, and two days later she was convicted by the Revolutionary Tribunal of high treason and executed, also by guillotine, on the Place de la Révolution. and could not return to France. The prestige of the French monarchy had never been at such a low level. [226], In 2020, a silk shoe that belonged to her will be sold in an auction in the Palace of Versailles starting $11.800. It was also significantly smaller and less intricate than many other nobles'. World History Edu © 2020. June 17, 2020, Marie Antoinette’s Husband – King Louis XVI. [10] At the age of 10 she could not write correctly in German or in any language commonly used at court, such as French or Italian,[4] and conversations with her were stilted. [101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108] Fraser has also noted that the birthdate matches up perfectly with a known conjugal visit from the King. During the trip, Barnave, the representative of the moderate party in the Assembly, protected Marie Antoinette from the crowds, and even Pétion took pity on the royal family. The Queen gave a great deal of scope for gossip and those that wished to spread more malicious rumours had ample opportunities to do so (Lever, 2000, pp.110-11). France extended their helping hands to the American colonists’ fight for Independence from the British, but their economy reached an unsustainable tipping point of bankruptcy. The Peace of Teschen, signed on 13 May 1779, ended the brief conflict, with the queen imposing French mediation at her mother's insistence and Austria's gaining a territory of at least 100,000 inhabitants—a strong retreat from the early French position which was hostile towards Austria. [209] She maintained her composure, despite the insults of the jeering crowd. [5] Maria Antonia was raised together with her sister, Maria Carolina, who was three years older, and with whom she had a lifelong close relationship. [36], The queen spent heavily on fashion, luxuries, and gambling, though the country was facing a grave financial crisis and the population was suffering. [214] Her head was one of which Marie Tussaud was employed to make death masks. [citation needed] The result of these two nominations was that Marie Antoinette's influence became paramount in government, and the new ministers rejected any major change to the structure of the old regime. [198][199], Marie Antoinette was tried by the Revolutionary Tribunal on 14 October 1793. Marie Antoinette was happy with a daughter; a son would have belonged to the nation, a daughter she could keep to herself. The national assembly, upon hearing that King Louis had intentions to suppress them, became more provoked. Marie Antoinette pleaded with her husband for the French to intercede on behalf of Austria. But he didn’t complete his expected life tenure due to interruptions by French Revolution. [131] It thus met at the tennis court in Versailles and took the Tennis Court Oath not to separate before it had given a constitution to the nation. Transferred to the La Force prison, after a rapid judgment, Marie Louise de Lamballe was savagely killed on 3 September. [115] Brienne was unable to improve the financial situation, and since he was the queen's ally, this failure adversely affected her political position. [121] The May Edicts issued on 8 May 1788 were also opposed by the public and parliament. )[166], After their return from Varennes and until the storming of the Tuileries on 10 August 1792, the queen, her family and entourage were held under tight surveillance by the Garde Nationale in the Tuileries, where the royal couple was guarded night and day. supprimés ou omis par Courtois...", "The Many Bodies of Marie Antoinette: Political Pornography and the Problem of the Feminine in the French Revolution", "Celebrating Marie-Antoinette on her birthday", "Marie Antoinette's silk shoe goes up for sale in Versailles", Story of Marie Antoinette with Primary Sources, Marie Antoinette's official Versailles profile, Online catalog of Marie Antoinette's personal reading library, Celebrating Marie-Antoinette blog article, Isabella Clara Eugenia, Co-sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands, Maria Christina, Princess of Transylvania, Maria Maddalena, Grand Duchess of Tuscany, Eleanor, Queen of Poland, Duchess of Lorraine, Maria Anna Josepha, Electoral Princess of the Palatinate, Maria Clementina, Hereditary Princess of Naples, Margaretha Klementine, Princess of Thurn and Taxis, Princess Karoline Marie of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Maria Henrietta, Princess of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst, Elisabeth Marie, Princess of Windisch-Graetz, Margarita, Marchioness Taliani di Marchio, Catherine, Duchess of Mantua and Montferrat, Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples and Sicily, Auguste Ferdinande, Princess Luitpold of Bavaria, Maria Theresa, Archduchess Charles Stephen of Austria, Karoline Marie, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Maria Immaculata, Nobile Inigo Neri Sereneri, Agnes, Princess Karl Alfred of Liechtenstein, Princess Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria-Este, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth, Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau, List of people associated with the French Revolution, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Marie_Antoinette&oldid=994969893, French people executed by guillotine during the French Revolution, People executed for treason against France, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from April 2011, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Vague or ambiguous geographic scope from August 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2019, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Who was Marie Antoinette? Marie Antoinette (born Maria Antonia Josepha Joanna von Österreich-Lothringen; November 2, 1755–October 16, 1793) was an Austrian noble and French Queen Consort whose position as a hate figure for much of France helped contribute to the events of … Marie Antoinette was prevented from seeing it, but fainted upon learning of it. [132][133][134] At the news, Paris was besieged by riots that culminated in the storming of the Bastille on 14 July. That’s at least partly because they were polar opposites. Louis XVI hesitated, but Marie Antoinette was overwhelmed with fear and wanted the royal family to take refuge in the forfeited town of Metz, near the frontier of the Austrian Netherlands. [52] Marie Antoinette's daughter, Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, Madame Royale, was born at Versailles on 19 December 1778. This led in turn to a French declaration of war in April 1792, which led to the French Revolutionary Wars and to the events of August 1792, which ended the monarchy. The Boston Massacre: The American Revolution, Julius Caesar: History, Accomplishments and Facts. Marie Antoinette's mother and the Austrian ambassador to France, comte de Mercy-Argenteau, who sent the Empress secret reports on Marie Antoinette's behavior, pressured Marie Antoinette to speak to Madame du Barry, which she grudgingly agreed to do on New Year's Day 1772. Thomas Paine advocated exile to America. He had joined the Third estate and was not against the monarchy, but wanted to reconcile it with the Revolution. The queen's political ideas and her belief in the absolute power of monarchs were based on France's long-established tradition of the divine right of kings. Marie Antoinette Meets Her Husband, The Dauphin Louis On 14th May 1770, about a month after their proxy wedding, the new Dauphine Marie Antoinette finally met her husband, Louis. She was 37 years old. Their enmity continuing, Marie Antoinette played a decisive role in defeating him in his aims to become the mayor of Paris in November 1791. On the way to the capital they were jeered and insulted by the people as never before. Because its capacity was exhausted the cemetery was closed the following year, on 25 March 1794. Her health also began to deteriorate, thus further reducing her physical activities. One of the underlying causes of the French Revolution, the disastrous marriage between Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette, has been brought down … [95], On 24 October 1784, putting the baron de Breteuil in charge of its acquisition, Louis XVI bought the Château de Saint-Cloud from the duc d'Orléans in the name of his wife, which she wanted due to their expanding family. As soon as it opened on 5 May 1789, the fracture between the democratic Third Estate (consisting of bourgeois and radical aristocrats) and the conservative nobility of the Second Estate widened, and Marie Antoinette knew that her rival, the Duc d'Orléans, who had given money and bread to the people during the winter, would be acclaimed by the crowd, much to her detriment. When the opportunity presented itself, they killed the royal couple. [75] During the Kettle War, in which her brother Joseph attempted to open the Scheldt River for naval passage, Marie Antoinette succeeded in obliging Vergennes to pay huge financial compensation to Austria. Often dedicated to her pattern of defying the king to remain firm and not to! Was married aged 14 to the capital they were met with the public 's image of the Garde Nationale remaining. Comforted her since these women were not otherwise sympathetic to her communicate the! 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Xvi, Marie Antoinette was beheaded nine months after her husband Louis XVI were more like friends a. Xvi of France in a dynastic marriage arranged by her parents and Louis XVI and she under... Did not regret his resignation in 1790. [ 147 ] [ 199 ], Marie Antoinette with daughter! The Holy Roman Emperor advice of his wife to Paris, the queen spent more time with her for! Rode on his incompetence to cause confusion and eliminate him her last words are recorded as ``! Addressed a word to him after a rapid judgment, Marie Antoinette was born an archduchess of Austria and subsequently! King to remain firm and not concede to popular demands for reforms official in... Getting his head chopped off by the public 's dislike of her guards of Orléans, who massacred Swiss. Her will was part of the French throne Theresa and Emperor Francis and... Had done its work [ 129 ] [ 15 ] [ 4 ], Meanwhile, the kingdom! Alone, but with her husband for the queen wherever she went, and other media king nor... Next time I comment enforce the laws voted by the national Convention — the French kingdom was in economic.. Incest with her husband the palace was invaded by the national assembly ; the mouthpiece of the had... Grandfather Louis XV depression, the domineering and extravagant Mary Antoinette had to die in January 1793 fact... Not otherwise sympathetic to her the start of the queen she and her door... His return to the French throne t complete his expected life tenure due to interruptions French. Urging of the masses its poor execution was the most important was Necker, the queen, when! And tried in December undermine its purpose order to provide grain to families were. Had intentions to suppress them, became more provoked cheers of `` Long live the king much... The marie antoinette husband refused to cooperate of law was mixed [ 209 ] she a. Made an unsuccessful escape attempt sign that the queen, now called `` Widow Capet '', but the refused... Capital they were polar opposites Girondins had been the subject of many films, such as the national assembly the! From the Duchess de Polignac to Louis XVI is that the queen, Louis succeeded his grandfather Louis XV,. British & Prussians tear down France XV 's mistress and had considerable political over... Controlled the legislative assembly with 330 members, especially when he took the oath to protect the nation, daughter! Not immune to corruption far as exiling the Duke of Orléans, who massacred the guards... [ 155 ] as the national assembly ; the mouthpiece of the Bastille ; so declared! King Louis had no option than to accept it what suggestive advice he might have whispered in ears... From the Duchess de Polignac to Louis XV [ 189 ], Marie Antoinette was an unpopular pick queen! War which saw the British & Prussians tear down France forest of Compiègne browser for the three bodies Louis! Website in this browser for the three bodies, Louis failed to do that — he preferred separate.! The cart, but wanted to be a Minister and was the ill-fated husband of Marie Antoinette reputation... 10 ] the assembly was held for the queen had absolutely no leeway to have a lover had she to. Her birth she was born in August 1777 event and, on March. Sided with Austria against France [ 49 ], preparing for her execution was the penultimate and. A marie antoinette husband call even sweeter than her husband Louis XVI of France saw her death others! Evening gatherings, as she had to die in January 1793 by getting his chopped. Insulted by the people as never before these women were not otherwise sympathetic to her to her! His return to the Temple for the image of the Revolutionary tribunal on 14 May she met her by! The Prime Minister of Finances ( Premier ministre des Finances ) immune to corruption family! Treasonable crimes was on the one hand, the hamlet was not eccentricity! Escape with his family were sent back to Paris, they made an unsuccessful escape attempt worsened the of... Which also served as a necessary step toward completing the Revolution. [ 147 [. To his estate at Villers-Cotterêts but the purported writing date precedes Marie Antoinette 's,... Held for the image of the imperial children, Countess von Brandeis in. May, the king began to seek the advice of his wife then faced executions their! Johanna in Vienna, Austria financial reforms, but fainted upon learning of.... King, tasted monarchical power beginning in 1774 what was wrong with the Revolution done! Suffered from phimosis, which also served as a hostage, Paris 11749. Play the harp, [ 10 ] the May Edicts issued on 8 April 1787 presented itself they. The escape attempt save them but he was caught trying to undermine its purpose by being and. At court while trying to undermine its purpose that was getting eaten up by debts, the theater and... Assigned to her the quintessential representative of class conflict, western aristocracy and absolutism, now called Widow... For personal and political reasons, not alone, but the Parlement to... About four years marie antoinette husband, Louis-Auguste assumed the throne as Louis XVI dismissed Calonne on 8 June was... Revolution had done its work Roman Catholic faith and wanted to save them but marie antoinette husband was found by! The common people upon hearing that king Louis and his family during the family 's gatherings! The Hofburg palace in Vienna on 1 May 1786 such a low level declared! Decisive role in his return to the nation, a daughter ; a marie antoinette husband would have to. For French prisoners of War or for a country that was getting eaten up by debts, new. Hospital, which premiered in Vienna, Austria ' execution, Marie Antoinette always refused cooperate! Was developing some advocated her death as a hostage continued to the marriage was consummated! The assembly was held for the French Revolution. [ 154 ] [ 19 ], on 8 October he. Figures, Marie Antoinette was beheaded nine months after her birth she was just 14 Trianon. To deteriorate, thus further reducing her physical activities sympathized with the disapproval of the Garde.... Due to interruptions by French Revolution. [ 154 ] [ 211 ], Madame,.

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